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See agenda item 2 on today's MACE-Dir call ___________________ 2. Expanded IMS roles vocabulary and eduCourse revisions - For revised role vocabulary, see Appendix B of http://www.imsglobal.org/lis/lisv2p0pd/MMSinfoModelv2p0pd.html - See also the full document set drafts of version 2.0 of Learning Information Services: http://www.imsglobal.org/lis/index.html The set of role types that a Person can have for their Memberships. The core vocabulary is: · Learner · Instructor · ContentDeveloper · Member · Manager · Mentor · Administrator · TeachingAssistant · Officer Rule B.1-01: Learner – the role of someone undergoing some form of formal learning; Rule B.1-02: Instructor – the role as teaching instructor for learning material presented through the Membership; Rule B.1-03: ContentDeveloper – the role as an author of content for learning material presented through the Membership; Rule B.1-04: Member – the role as a Member of the associated Membership; Rule B.1-05: Manager – the role as manager of the Group for which Membership is being defined; Rule B.1-06: Mentor – the role as a personal mentor of other individuals in the Membership; Rule B.1-07: Administrator – the role as formal administrator in the Membership; Rule B.1-08: TeachingAssistant – the role as teaching assistant to an Instructor in the Membership; Rule B.1-09: Officer – the role as an officer of organization e.g. Chair, Secretary, etc in the Membership. The set of sub-role types that a Person can have for their Memberships. The core vocabulary is (the context role vocabulary is also given): · Learner – someone who usually learns within a specific course structure — Learner – typical learner — NonCreditLearner – a learner who is enrolled through the same process as learner, but is not receiving credit for this course — GuestLearner – a learner who is not enrolled in the same process as a learner is, may or may not receive credit for the course — ExternalLearner – a learner who is not a member of the institution) — Instructor – someone who usually teaches within a specific course structure; · Instructor – typical instructor — PrimaryInstructor – an instructor who is primarily responsible for the instruction — Lecturer – an instructor that has limited permissions to modify the course — GuestInstructor – an instructor who is teaching this course outside of their normal responsibilities — ExternalInstructor – an instructor who is not a member of the institution; · ContentDeveloper – someone who usually develops materials within a specific course structure — ContentDeveloper – typical content developer — Librarian – a librarian who provides content support — ContentExpert – an expert that participates in the course because of their knowledge e.g. guest speaker, artist in residence, etc. — ExternalContentExpert – an expert who is not a member of the institution that participates in the course because of their knowledge e.g. guest speaker, artist in residence, etc. · Member — Member – typical member · Manager – someone who usually interacts with multiple course structures — Manager – typical manager — AreaManager – provides assistance, administration, and/or support to multiple course structures, e.g. Departmental Staff, Cohort Leader, etc. — CourseCoordinator – provides assistance to a set of course structures that are related, a lab manager, etc. — Observer – views multiple course structures for non-instructional purposes, e.g. Peer review committee, accreditation staff, etc. — ExternalObserver – person that is not a member of the institution that views multiple course structures for non-instructional purposes, e.g. Peer review committee, Accreditation staff, etc. · Mentor – someone who usually works with a specific course structure with a specific learner — Mentor – typical mentor — Reviewer – reviews work by learners — Advisor – advises learners — Auditor – audits learner activities e.g. staff that verifies continuing eligibility for a scholarship, etc. — Tutor – works with individual learners to assist in their instruction — LearningFacilitator – works with individual learner to access materials e.g. translator, assistant for persons of differing abilities, etc. — ExternalMentor – a user who is not a member of the institution that mentors learners — ExternalReviewer – a user who is not a member of the institution that reviews work by learners — ExternalAdvisor – a user who is not a member of the institution that advises learners — ExternalAuditor – a user who is not a member of the institution that audits learner activities e.g. staff that verifies continuing eligibility for a scholarship, etc. — ExternalTutor – a user who is not a member of the institution that works with individual learners to assist in their instruction — ExternalLearningFacilitator – a user who is not a member of the institution that works with individual learner to access materials e.g. translator, assistant for persons of differing abilities, etc. · Administrator – someone who typically works with a system and all sub-structures (LMS, SIS, etc.) — Administrator – typical administrator — Support – provides support for the system, usually has fewer privileges then an administrator — Developer – provides programmatic development for use in a LMS, SIS, or associated tool(s) — SystemAdministrator – has greater privileges then an administrator — ExternalSystemAdministrator – a user who is not a member of the institution that provides support, e.g. vendor support accounts, 3rd party support accounts, etc. — ExternalDeveloper – a user who is not a member of the institution that provides programmatic development for use in a LMS, SIS, or associated tool(s)) — ExternalSupport – a user who is not a member of the institution that provides support for the system, usually has fewer privileges then an administrator; · TeachingAssistant: – someone who usually has a subset of instructional responsibilities for some portion of a course structure — TeachingAssistant – typical teaching assistant — TeachingAssistantSection – a teaching assistant for a section — TeachingAssistantSectionAssociation – a teaching assistant for a section association — TeachingAssistantOffering – a teaching assistant for a offering — TeachingAssistantTemplate – a teaching assistant for a template — TeachingAssistantGroup – a teaching assistant for a group — Grader – primary responsibility is assignment of grades. · Officer: – someone who an executive/administrative role in a formally organized group — Chair – Chair of the Group — Secretary – Secretary to the Group — Treasurer – Treasurer to the Group — ViceChair – Vice Chair to the Group — Communications – communications officer for the Group. __________________

Comments

I was having a conversation with one of our newer faculty members - tenure track.  I mention that because although she is not-that-long out of her doc program, very aware of a wide variety of technologies, not afraid or hesitant to try new things, but also needs to focus on publishing in her field in order to get tenure, so that, in many ways, can color what some faculty are willing to invest time in.

Anyway, she and I were talking about games in education.  So she asked me how I define a "game".  This lead to an interesting conversation in which I used the phrase "game mechanics", which she also asked me to define.

So, I pose the question to you all.  How would you have answered those two questions.

aj



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AJ Kelton
Director of Emerging Instructional Technology
College of Humanities and Social Sciences
Montclair State University
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Twitter: @ELDConf
Hashtag: #ELD12
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********** Participation and subscription information for this EDUCAUSE Constituent Group discussion list can be found at http://www.educause.edu/groups/.

Message from intellagirl@gmail.com

My favorite definition is from Roger Caillois (with a few caveats of my own)
  • fun: the activity is chosen for its light-hearted character (though this does not rule out games which are challenging)
  • separate: it is circumscribed in time and place (see explanations of the "Magic Circle" concept)
  • uncertain: the outcome of the activity is unforeseeable
  • non-productive: participation does not accomplish anything useful (I would say not directly productive, but games may be indirectly productive ie you could learn something while playing a game but it's not the goal of the game itself)
  • governed by rules: the activity has rules that are different from everyday life (rules that are applied to all players equally regardless of social/economic/etc factors that exist outside, these are the mechanics of the game)
  • fictitious: it is accompanied by the awareness of a different reality

I find this definition useful because it helps me define why a successful game works, why an unsuccessful game fails, and how a game is different from a simulation or an exercise.

Eager to hear what other folks think.

Sarah "Intellagirl" Smith-Robbins, PhD

Director of Emerging Technologies, Kelley Executive Partners at Indiana University
Marketing faculty   Kelley School of Business, Indiana University

http://www.intellagirl.com
Twitter: intellagirl


********** Participation and subscription information for this EDUCAUSE Constituent Group discussion list can be found at http://www.educause.edu/groups/.

Personally, I like the definition of game from Salen & Zimmerman in “Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals” (partially derived from Caillois): “A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome.” The MIT Press page for Salen & Zimmerman's book is at: http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?ttype=2&tid=9802 For game mechanics, I like the definition from Lundgren & Björk in “Game Mechanics: Describing Computer-Augmented Games in Terms of Interaction”: “A game mechanic is simply any part of the rule system of a game that covers one, and only one, possible kind of interaction that takes place during the game, be it general or specific. A game may consist of several mechanics, and a mechanic may be a part of many games.” The paper by Lundgren & Björk is available at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.13.5147 All the best, Ruben Ruben R. Puentedura, Ph.D. Founder and President Hippasus 228 Main Street, #412 Williamstown, MA 01267 (413) 441-6467 rubenrp@hippasus.com http://hippasus.com
Message from katking@umd.edu

I am interested in kinds of definitions: intensive ones that characterize very specific communities of practice around gaming: gamers, designers, theorists, learning specialists, and so on. 

And extensive ones: that notice how relative and relational these definitions are, and how interestingly they are bits in the ecologies of their communities. 

I am especially interested myself in traveling among these gaming worlds on one extensive journeying, and more intensively, I think about games often myself in terms of a history of understandings about play: cross-culturally, multi-species, in educational waves and trends over time. How play and learning come together and move apart through ideas about "games" -- and how exciting things are happening today around such gaming movements and arts and technologies and learnings. 

I am also excited to see how learning, play, and neurobiology take up gaming and learning and play, and what new practices emerge from these. 

Katie King
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Katie King
Associate Professor, Women's Studies
Affiliate Faculty, Comparative Literature and American, Performance and LGBT Studies
Fellow, Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities (MITH)
2101 Woods Hall
University of Maryland
College Park MD 20742
office tel. 301.405.7294
twitter: katkingumd




Message from rob.moser@nau.edu

On 01/31/2012 08:12 AM, Ruben R. Puentedura wrote: > Personally, I like the definition of game from Salen & Zimmerman in “Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals” (partially derived from Caillois): > > “A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome.” Thats an interesting one. So role-playing games don't count, not having a quantifiable outcome? (I'm thinking of pen-and-paper storytelling games, or "playing house" style games, more than computer RPGs which tend to have a much more defined "win" state.) Thats not necessarily meant as criticism, by the way. I don't see any reason why an academically useful definition of "game" has to necessarily include absolutely everything that is commonly called a game in common usage. But if they _are_ going to differ, you want to be very aware of where, and why. Instinctively I want to argue the "conflict" part as well, but almost all of the cooperative games I can think of off the top of my head could be said to involve conflict with some outside, non-player source. So with the footnote that the conflict doesn't need to be between the players, I guess I've got nothing much concrete. I do think that the game(? is it a game?) of, for instance, a bunch of kids trying to keep a balloon from hitting the ground is at best "conflict" against gravity, which is an extraordinarily fuzzy definition of conflict. Perhaps this really _isn't_ a game, at least in the sense that Salen and Zimmerman meant. - rob. ********** Participation and subscription information for this EDUCAUSE Constituent Group discussion list can be found at http://www.educause.edu/groups/.
My initial instinct was also to take exception to the "conflict" idea.  I don't consider tic-tac-toe or Jeopardy as having "conflict".  However, if conflict is defined as one person/team having to win and one lose, and the "tension" that exists in that space, I guess its the right word.  I need to think about it a bit more (and planned to before responding but your note prompted me to sooner rather than later), but I'm not sure I would use that word in my description.


I tend to organize these sorts of concepts with key terms, and for game mechanics, my terms would include:

A compelling story (without this, all you've got is another cookie-cutter first person shooter)
Alternate reality
Tutorial (the best games, in my opinion, always *include* this as part of the experience)
Creation and recombination of inventory (Minecraft)
Resource management (some kind of currency or economy)
Strategy
Competition (and/or cooperation vs. a common opponent)
Socialization (RPGs and MMORPGs)
Survival
Repetition (but not to the point of tedium)
Achievements (badges, benchmarks, "leveling up," etc.)

So, a definition of game mechanics for me would include most or all of these terms.  That'll be $0.02, please :)

Stevon Roberts
Instructional Media Coordinator
Center for Teaching and Learning
Oregon State University
116 Waldo Hall
Corvallis, OR 97330






On Jan 31, 2012, at 8:17 AM, AJ wrote:

My initial instinct was also to take exception to the "conflict" idea.  I don't consider tic-tac-toe or Jeopardy as having "conflict".  However, if conflict is defined as one person/team having to win and one lose, and the "tension" that exists in that space, I guess its the right word.  I need to think about it a bit more (and planned to before responding but your note prompted me to sooner rather than later), but I'm not sure I would use that word in my description.


I like the definition found in Jane McGonigal's book, "Reality is Broken" when she quotes Bernard Suits:

"Playing a game is the voluntary attempt to overcome unnecessary obstacles."

But basically she outlines something all games have in common: a goal, rules, a feedback or scoring system, and voluntary participation.

Really good and engaging games may have some of these other elements such as an epic context or engaging narrative.  But if you're looking for a broad definition of games (video, sports, card, roleplaying, etc.) then I think this is a good place to start.


Thank you,

Meghan Foster

Coordinator of Faculty Media Training

Center for Teaching Research and Learning

American University

202-885-6083

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What a fun and useful discussion!
Personally, I like Caillois' notes on this.  I'm interested in a broad definition so as to include ARGs, Bioshock, and Calvinball.

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