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The Myth about IT as a Utility


© 2007 Brian L. Hawkins and Diana G. Oblinger

EDUCAUSE Review, vol. 42, no. 4 (July/August 2007): 10–11

"IT Is Just a Utility—Like Electricity or Water."

Brian L. Hawkins is President of EDUCAUSE. Diana G. Oblinger is Vice President of EDUCAUSE, where she is responsible for the association's teaching and learning activities and for the EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative (ELI). Comments on this article can be sent to the authors at bhawkins@educause.edu and doblinger@educause.edu.

Information technology is just a utility—like water or electricity. We'd all like that statement to be true. When we want to connect to the Internet, we want it to be there—instantly. And most of the time, it is. For the most common applications—e-mail or Web browsing—the Internet can be turned on or off. We can get e-mail on our computers. We can get e-mail on our mobile phones. We can get e-mail from kiosks in airports. We can use the campus e-mail system or gmail. But thinking about IT as a utility is misleading. Thirty years ago, e-mail was an exotic application available only to scientists with access to ARPANET. IT has come a long way since then—just like utilities.

On the main street of any small town in the 1950s were a drugstore, a Western Auto store, a grocery, a bakery, a clothes store, a bar, a movie theater, a bank, a dimestore, and a couple of gas stations. What many have forgotten is that there was also an electrical store that sold coffee pots, electric frying pans, toasters, and the like. In the early part of the twentieth century, many local power companies had their own standards for voltage and amperage, and appliances were made to those standards. Not even the plugs and the wall outlets were standardized (many older homes still have these outlets, long since painted over). Rural electrification led to common standards, which allowed for the commoditization of appliances.

For decades, electricity has remained the same. Standards are in place. There is a single service provider. The evolution is in the appliances that use the electricity, not in the electricity itself. In some ways, IT is going through a similar evolution. In the 1980s and early 1990s, technologists were sorting out networking standards and protocols. Only when those differences were resolved did the commoditization of networking become possible.

But the commonality between electricity and IT may end there. What operating system do you use? Are you a Mac user, or do you prefer a PC? Do you have a Blackberry server to support e-mail on your handheld, or is your mobile device based on Windows or Palm software? You can exchange e-mail, but you can't interchange the devices. If a campus records lectures as podcasts for students, someone made a choice about whether the podcast would be distributed over iTunes U or on the campus Web site, whether it would be saved as an MP4 or an MP3, whether it would be released as audio alone or enhanced with video. Just because something is podcast doesn't mean that it will work on any device. If it doesn't work everywhere, is it a utility?

Assuming that IT is limited to commodity services is incorrect. Beyond the everyday tools are IT applications that are critical to discovery and learning: 3-D graphics, visualization, grid computing, high-throughput computing, large distributed databases, and so on. Even the network—the component most like a utility—is constantly evolving. The third generation of fiber optics carries 10 trillion bits per second on one strand of fiber. Predictions are that by 2013, a supercomputer will be built that exceeds the computation capacity of the human brain.1 Maybe IT isn't quite like a utility.

Much of IT involves people, not just "plugging in" a technology. For the faculty member who is exploring how to make his or her class more interactive or the student who needs help using Excel, the personal touch is critical. Disaster recovery is at least as much about staying in touch with students and faculty as it is about making backups. Even "technical" issues such as identity management, authorization, and security aren't just about IT alone; they concern people, risk, and judgment. None of these issues have yet been simplified to commodity status.

In thinking about IT as a utility, the CIO and other members of the executive team should ask themselves the following strategic questions:

  1. Do we make the assumption that all IT is the same? IT encompasses a range of activities, some routine and others experimental and highly individualized. Although network access, e-mail services, and Web sites may come to mind first, IT also includes advanced decision-making tools, simulations, high-performance computing, worldwide databases such as for the human genome, and assistive devices. Many IT applications have stabilized, but others are just emerging. Does the institution inadvertently make the assumption that IT changes are in the past?
  2. What systems and applications are commoditized? Some campus applications, such as e-mail, are as readily available from external providers as from internal ones. Other applications may be critical to campus operations without being tied to the core mission. Payroll and administrative systems are certainly critical to the institution but may have routine, stable requirements that make them candidates for outsourcing. Is there an advantage to moving responsibility for selected applications to another provider? Will doing so free up valuable time for the IT organization to provide services of greater value? If there is no competitive advantage to keeping an application in-house, what is the process for identifying another provider?
  3. Is there a regular, systematic process for reviewing which applications are mission-critical, unique, or commoditized and then determining the implications for how these services are delivered? Since IT is ubiquitous, colleges and universities are so often caught in the tyranny of the urgent—applying a patch or upgrading a service—that they fail to examine what they are doing. A periodic "audit" of services—of who provides them and even whether they are still necessary—is advisable.
  4. How much of IT is about the technology, and how much is about people and the work IT enables? Although IT is a technology, its value is in the service it provides to people, whether through automation, speed, insight, or convenience. Simply applying IT to a problem or process will not necessarily yield benefits: people are a critical part of the equation. How much of those human interactions could be treated as a commodity? How much should?
  5. What opportunities do we miss if we think of IT only as a utility? Higher education cannot afford to assume that IT is a constant or a commodity. If IT were constant, Web 2.0 would not have emerged from the search-and-retrieve Web of a few years ago. We would have missed Flickr, Wikipedia, blogs, YouTube, and Facebook. If IT were just a commodity, cyberinfrastructure would not be emerging from the Internet. We would have missed 3-D rendering, virtual reality, and access to worldwide databases and powerful research communities. IT does not stand still.

Most of the time, IT is a utility—ubiquitous and taken for granted. But it is also a rapidly evolving, mission-critical resource. Few institutions can risk underestimating the power of IT to catalyze change and create competitive advantage.


1. Text for "Did You Know?" presentation, http://www.lps.k12.co.us/schools/arapahoe/fisch/didyouknow/didyouknowtext.doc, The Fischbowl, August 15, 2006.

Brian L. Hawkins

Brian L. Hawkins was president of EDUCAUSE from 1998-2007. Prior to joining EDUCAUSE, Hawkins was senior vice president for Academic Planning and Administrative Affairs at Brown University. In this capacity, he oversaw academic planning, instructional budget management, campus computing, enrollment management, institutional research, summer programs, admission, financial aid, and student registration. Hawkins went to Brown in 1986 as vice president for Computing and Information Services. In 1989, he filled in as senior vice president for Finance and Administration, and then was appointed special assistant to the president for Academic Planning while he spearheaded Brown’s strategic planning processes. In 1997, he served as part of a three-person team standing in for the president of Brown University.

Before going to Brown, Hawkins was associate vice president for Academic Affairs at Drexel University. At Drexel, he was responsible for general academic planning and the first academic program in the nation to require access to a microcomputer, as well as integrating the use of technology throughout the curriculum.

Hawkins is a management professor by training and the author of one book and many articles on organizational behavior. He received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees from Michigan State University and his doctorate from Purdue University. He taught at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) and served there as department chairman and assistant dean of the College of Business. His organizational work focused on organizational structure, conflict management, communication, and performance appraisal. He earned tenure as faculty member at both UTSA and Drexel.

Hawkins has combined his academic and business experience to serve as a consultant to more than 350 organizations. In 1983, the governor of Pennsylvania asked him to initiate a corporate, industrial, public, and educational partnership in Southeastern Pennsylvania to create start-up companies and develop new jobs. Nearly two decades later, this program is still thriving.

Throughout his career, Hawkins has served on a variety of boards and committees. He is currently a member of the board of directors of the Forum for the Future of Higher Education and the Washington Higher Education Secretariat. Hawkins served as a member of the board of trustees of the University of Richmond and the Consortium on Financing Higher Education (COFHE) General Assembly and as chair and member of the boards of Educom and CAUSE. He also served on the boards of the Coalition for Networked Information (CNI) and the International Consortium for Educational Computing. Additionally, Hawkins has been a member of higher education advisory boards for Apple, IBM, NeXT, Sun, and Microsoft and has served on more than 60 advisory panels for various colleges and universities.

He has written extensively, including four books, numerous articles, book chapters, and monographs on information resources, academic planning, and the use of technology in higher education. Hawkins has received two honorary doctorates of science. In 1991, he received the CAUSE ELITE Award, a lifetime achievement award for Exemplary Leadership and Information Technology Excellence. He has served actively on accreditation teams as a chair and member, as well as the standards committee for North East Association of Schools and Colleges. Hawkins has been an invited speaker at professional meetings including the American Association of Higher Education (AAHE), Educom, CAUSE, the Society for College and University Planning (SCUP), the American Association of Publishers (AAP), the Association for College Research Libraries (ACRL), the National Association of College Stores (NACS), the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO), and the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC).


Diana Oblinger

Dr. Diana G. Oblinger President and CEO of EDUCAUSE

Dr. Diana G. Oblinger is President and CEO of EDUCAUSE, a nonprofit association whose mission is to advance higher education through the use of information technology. The current membership comprises over 2,300 colleges, universities and education organizations, including 250 corporations. Previously, Oblinger held positions in academia and business: Vice President for Information Resources and the Chief Information Officer for the University of North Carolina system, Executive Director of Higher Education for Microsoft, and IBM Director of the Institute for Academic Technology. She was on the faculty at the University of Missouri-Columbia and at Michigan State University and served as the associate dean of academic programs at the University of Missouri.

Since becoming president of EDUCAUSE, Oblinger has become known for innovative product and services growth as well as international outreach. For example, Oblinger created the EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative (ELI), known for its leadership in teaching, learning and technology innovation as well as several signature products, such as the 7 Things You Should Know About series. She also initiated EDUCAUSE's first fully online events and its e-book series, including Educating the Net Generation and Learning Spaces.

In collaboration with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation she led the creation of the Next Generation Learning Challenges, a $30M program focused on improving college readiness and completion through information technologies. Partners include the League for Innovation in the Community College, the International Association for K-12 Online Learning, the Council of Chief State School Officers, and the Hewlett Foundation.

Oblinger has served on a variety of boards such as the board of directors of ACT, the editorial board of Open Learning, the National Science Foundation's Advisory Committee on Cyberinfrastructure, and the National Visiting Committee for NSF's National Science Digital Library project. She currently serves on the American Council on Education (ACE) board and works with other higher education associations as chair of the Washington Higher Education Secretariat. Dr. Oblinger has testified before the U.S. Senate Committee on Employment, Safety and Training and the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Technology.

Oblinger is a frequent keynote speaker as well as the co-author of the award-winning book What Business Wants from Higher Education. She is the editor or co-editor of seven books: The Learning Revolution, The Future Compatible Campus, Renewing Administration, E is for Everything, Best Practices in Student Services, Educating the Net Generation, and Learning Spaces. She also is the author or co-author of numerous monographs and articles on higher education and technology.

Dr. Oblinger has received outstanding teaching and research awards, was named Young Alumnus of the Year by Iowa State University and holds two honorary degrees. She is a graduate of Iowa State University (Bachelors, Masters, and Ph.D.) and is a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Kappa Phi, and Sigma Xi.


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