Learning Space Rating System Resources
Learning Space Rating System Resources
The LSRS team has assembled this collection of resources on learning space design. We hope that the community finds this list of value. We welcome further nominations from community members. Many thanks to Dana Gierdowski of EDUCAUSE for many valuable additions to this collection.
For version 3, we completely reviewed the version 2 resources collection, removing items that seemed obsolete. We have also grouped the resources to associate them with specific sections in version 3 of the rating system, as well as a “general” section for resources that have a wide scope and so are thematically relevant to multiple sections.
Section 1: Integration with Campus Context (ICC)
Boddington, A., and Boys, J., eds. (2011). Re-shaping Learning: A Critical Reader. The Future of Learning Spaces in Post-Compulsory Education. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Boys, J. (2015). Building Better Universities: Strategies, Spaces, Technologies. New York: Routledge.
Harrison, A., and Hutton, L. (2014). Design for the Changing Educational Landscape: Space, Place and the Future of Learning. Routledge, London.
Strange, C. C., and Banning, J. H. (2001). Educating by Design: Creating Campus Learning Environments That Work. John Wiley.
Section 2: Planning and Design Process (PDP)
Beichner, R. J., Saul, J. M., Abbott, D. S., Morse, J. J., Deardorff, D. L., Allain, R. J., et al. (2007). The Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) project. In E. F. Redish and P. J. Cooney (Eds.), Research-Based Reform of University Physics, Reviews in PER Vol. 1. College Park, MD: American Association of Physics Teachers.
Bunnell, A., Carpenter, R., Hensley, E., Strong, K., Williams, R., and Winter, R. (2016). “Mapping the Hot Spots: A Zoning Approach to Space Analysis and Design.” Journal of Learning Spaces 5, no. 1, 19–25.
Doorley, S., and Witthoft, S. (2012). Make Space: How to Set the Stage for Creative Collaboration. Hoboken: Wiley & Sons.
Finkelstein, A., Ferris, J., Weston, C., and Winer, L. (2016). “Research-Informed Principles for (Re)designing Teaching and Learning Spaces.” Journal of Learning Spaces 5, no. 1.
Florman, J. C. (2014). “TILE in Iowa: Adoption and adaptation.” In P. Baepler, D.C. Brooks, and J.D. Walker (Eds.), New Directions for Teaching and Learning: Active Learning Spaces, 77–84. San Francisco, Jossey Bass.
Gierdowski, D. (2013). “Geographies of a Writing Space: The Study of a Flexible Composition Classroom.” (Doctoral dissertation). North Carolina State University.
Gierdowski, D. (2012). “Studying Learning Spaces: A Review of Selected Empirical Studies.” In R. Carpenter (Ed.) Cases on Higher Education Spaces. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Gierdowski, D., and Miller-Cochran, S. (2016). “A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words: Understanding Expectations and Mapping Preferences for Writing Classroom Design.” In J. P. Purdy and D. N. DeVoss (Eds.) Making Space: Writing Instruction, Infrastructure, and Multiliteracies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press Sweetland.
Matthews, K. E. “Engaging Students in Their Space—Designing and Managing Social Learning Spaces to Enhance Student Engagement.” In Proceedings of the International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Conference. International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 2010.
Mayer, R. “Learning Environments: The Case for Evidence-Based Practice and Issue-Driven Research,” Educational Psychology Review 15, no. 4 (2003).
Miller-Cochran, S., and Gierdowski, D. (2013). “Making Peace with the Rising Costs of Writing Technologies: Flexible Classroom Design as a Sustainable Solution.” Computers and Composition Special Issue: Deploying 21st Century Writing on the Economic Frontlines 30 no. 1, 50–60.
Morrone, A. S., Flaming, A., Birdwell, T., Russell, J., Roman, T., and Jesse, M. (2017). “Creating Active Learning Classrooms Is Not Enough: Lessons from Two Case Studies.” EDUCAUSE Review, December 4, 2017
Weston, C., Ferris, J., and Finkelstein, A. (2017). “Leading Change: An Organizational Development Role for Educational Developers.” International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 29 no. 2, 270–280.
Section 3: Support and Operations (SO)
Birdwell, T., and Uttamchandani, S. (2019). “Learning to teach in space: Design principles for faculty development in active learning classrooms.” Journal of Learning Spaces 8 no.1, 19–27.
Gierdowski, D. (2017). “The Flexible Writing Classroom as a Site for Pedagogical Reflection.” In M. Kim and R. Carpenter (Eds.) Writing Studio Pedagogy: Space, Place, and Rhetoric in Collaborative Environments. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
Gierdowski, D. (2015). “Instructor Perceptions of a Flexible Writing Classroom.” In R. Carpenter, R. Selfe, S. Apostle, and K. Apostle (Eds.) Sustainable Learning Spaces, Computers & Composition Digital Press, an Imprint of the Utah State University Press.
Ramsay, C. M., Robert, J., and Sparrow, J. L. (2019). “Promoting pedagogical agility in learning spaces: Toward a comprehensive framework of faculty support and innovation.” Journal of Teaching and Learning with Technology 8, no. 1.
Section 4: Environmental Quality (EQ)
General Guidelines, Standards, and Rating Systems for Environmental Quality
LEED v4 for Building Design and Construction, U.S. Green Building Council, July 2019.
Living Building Challenge 4.0 Standard, International Living Future Institute.
Browning, W. D., Ryan, C. O., and Clancy, J. O. (2014). 14 Patterns of Biophilic Design: Improving Health and Well-Being in the Built Environment. New York: Terrapin Bright Green LLC.
2030 Palette: A Resource for the Design of Zero-Carbon, Adaptable and Resilient Built Environments World Wide, palette on Buildings (for sustainable design strategies and resources on various building design topics, such as Side Daylighting).
Resources on Acoustics
ANSI/ASI S12.60-2010/Part 1 American National Standard Acoustical Performance Criteria, Design Requirements, and Guidelines for Schools, Part 1: Permanent Schools standards for acoustics in core learning spaces and ancillary learning spaces.
Canning, David, et al. “Acoustics of Schools: A Design Guide,” Institute of Acoustics & Association of Noise Consultants. London (2015).
Crandell, C. C., Smaldino, J. J., and Flexer, C. A. (2005). Sound Field Amplification: Applications to Speech Perception and Classroom Acoustics. Thomson Delmar Learning.
Crandell, Carl C., and Joseph J. Smaldino. “Classroom acoustics for children with normal hearing and with hearing impairment,” Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools 31, no. 4 (2000): 362–370.
Resources on Lighting Quality and Control
FiGueiro, M., Gonzales K., and Pedler, D., “Designing with Circadian Stimulus,” LD+ A 8 (2016): 30–34.
Rossi M. (2019), “Conclusions and Possible Guidelines for Circadian Lighting Design,” In Circadian Lighting Design in the LED Era. Research for Development. Springer.
Resources on Thermal Comfort
Earthman, G. I. (2004). Prioritization of 31 Criteria for School Building Adequacy. Baltimore, MD: American Civil Liberties Union Foundation of Maryland.
Karjalainen, S. (2011). Thermal Comfort and Gender: A Literature Review. John Wiley & Sons.
Section 5: Layout and Furnishings (LF)
Bruff D. (2018). Active Learning Classrooms.
Harvey, E., and Kenyon, M. (2013,) Seating Considerations for 21st Century Students and Faculty, Journal of Learning Spaces 2, no 1.
Henshaw, R. G., Edwards, P. M., and Bagley, E. J. (2011). Use of Swivel Desks and Aisle Space to Promote Interaction in Mid-Sized College Classrooms. Journal of Learning Spaces 1, no. 1.
Henshaw, R. G., and Reubens, A. (2013). Evaluating Design Enhancements to the Tablet Arm Chair in Language Instruction Classes. Journal of Learning Spaces 2 no. 2.
Herman Miller, Solution Essay (2008). Rethinking the Classroom – Spaces Designed for Active and Engaged Learning and Teaching.
O’Donnell Wicklund Pigozzi and Peterson, VS Furniture, NS Bruce Mau Design. (2010). The Third Teacher: 79 Ways You Can Use Design to Transform Teaching & Learning. New York: Abrams.
Perkins, K. K., AND Wieman, C. E. (2005). The Surprising Impact of Seat Location on Student Performance. The Physics Teacher 43, 30.
Steelcase Education Insights+Applications Guide - Active Learning Spaces (2014),
Item #:14-0000296 5/14, Steelcase Inc.
Section 6: Technology and Tools (TT)
Gibau, G., Kissel, F., and Labode, M. (2019). Starting with the Space: Integrating Learning Spaces and Technologies. Journal of Teaching and Learning with Technology 8 no. 1, 17–32.
Richards J., and Mantey P. E., Large Classroom Experience with an Interactive Tiled Display Mural, Proceedings. Frontiers in Education. 36th Annual Conference, San Diego, CA, 2006, 15–20.
Roman, T., and Racek, J. (2018). Virtual Reality as a Pedagogical Tool to Design for Social Impact: A Design Case. Association for Educational Communities & Technology 63: 79–86.
Leijon, M., and Lundgren, B. (2019). Connecting Physical and Virtual Spaces in a HyFlex Pedagogic Model with a Focus on Teacher Interaction, Journal of Learning Spaces 8, no. 1.
Pomerantz, Jeffrey. XR for Teaching and Learning: Year 2 of the EDUCAUSE/HP Campus of the Future Project. ECAR research report. Louisville, CO: EDUCAUSE, October 2019.
Section 7: Inclusion (IN)
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) (n.d.). Wikipedia.
Beers, M., and Summers, T. (2018). Educational Equity and the Classroom: Designing Learning-Ready Spaces for All Students. EDUCAUSE Review 53, no. 3 (May/June).
Beemyn, B. G. (2005). Making Campuses More Inclusive of Transgender Students. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education 3, no. 1: 77–87.
Brown, K. (2019). Creating Culturally Safe Learning Spaces and Indigenizing Higher Education. Journal of Learning Space Design 8, o. 2.
Burgess, B., and Kaya, N. (2007). Gender Differences in Student Attitude for Seating Layout in College Classrooms. College Student Journal 41, no. 4: 940–946.
Callan, E. (2016). Education in Safe and Unsafe spaces. Philosophical Inquiry in Education 24, no. 1 :64–78.
Cheryan, S., Davies, P. G., Plaut, V. C., and Steele, C. M. (2009). Ambient Belonging: How Stereotypical Cues Impact Gender Participation in Computer Science. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 97, no. 6: 1045–1060.
Cheryan, S., Ziegler, S. A., Plaut, V. C., and Meltzoff, A. N. (2014). Designing Classrooms to Maximize Student Achievement. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2014 1, no. 1: 4–12.
Connell, B. R., M. L. Jones, R. L. Mace, J. L. Mueller, A. Mullick, E. Ostroff, J. Sanford, et al., The Principles of Universal Design, Version 2.0, Raleigh, N.C.: Center for Universal Design, North Carolina State University, 1997.
Deaux, K. (2001). Social identity. Encyclopedia of Women and Gender, Volumes One and Two. Academic Press.
Denhardt, T. (2017). Autism-Aware Design. Architecture New Zealand, July 2017, Issue 4.
DO-IT (Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking, and Technology) (2012). Academic Accommodations for Students with Learning Disabilities. University of Washington.
Gaines, K., Bourne, A., Pearson, M., and Kleibrink, M. (2016). Designing for Autism Spectrum Disorders. New York: Routledge.
Gaines, K. S., and Curry, Z. D. (2011). The Inclusive Classroom: The Effects of Color on Learning and Behavior. Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences Education 29, no. 1, Spring/Summer.
Holeton, R. (2020). “Toward Inclusive Learning Spaces: Physiological, Cognitive, and Cultural Inclusion and the Learning Space Rating System.” EDUCAUSE Review, February 28, 2020.
Kizilcec, R. F., and Saltarelli, A. J. (2019). Psychologically Inclusive Design: Cues Impact Women’s Participation in STEM Education. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI). Glasgow, Scotland.
Latu, I. M., Mast, M. S., Lammers, J., and Bombari, D. (2013). Successful Female Leaders Empower Women's Behavior in Leadership Tasks. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 49, no. 3: 444–448.
Mostafa, M. (2015). Architecture for Autism: Built Environment Performance in Accordance to the Autism ASPECTSSTM Design Index. Design Principles and Practices 8, no. 1: 55–71.
Mostafa, M. The Autism ASPECTSSTM Design Index. Evidence-based design guidelines to address built environments for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder, for use as an assessment and design development tool.
Pickett, C. L., Gardner, W. L., and Knowles, M. (2004). Getting a Cue: The Need to Belong and Enhanced Sensitivity to Social Cues. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30, no. 9: 1095–107.
Pliner, S. M., and Johnson, J. R. (2004). Historical, Theoretical, and Foundational Principles of Universal Instructional Design in Higher Education. Equity & Excellence in Education 37, no. 2: 105–113.
Rose, D., et al. Universal Design for Learning in Postsecondary Education: Reflections on Principles and Their Application, Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability 19, no. 2 (2006).
Schmitt, M. T., Davies, K., Hung, M., and Wright, S. C. (2010). Identity moderates the effects of Christmas displays on mood, self-esteem, and inclusion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 46: 1017–1022.
Space Reface Toolkit (2019). Stanford SPARQ, Department of Psychology, Stanford University.
Steele, C. M., Spencer, S. J., and Aronson, J. (2002). Contending with Group Image: The Psychology of Stereotype and Social Identity Threat. In Zanna, M. P. (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology 34: 379–440. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Storey, M. F. (2011). The Principles of Universal Design. In Preiser, W. F. E., and Smith, K. H. (eds.), Universal Design Handbook, 2nd ed (New York: McGraw-Hill): 4.3–4.12.
Summers, T., and Beers, M. (2019). Ready for equity? A Cross-Cultural Organizational Framework to Scale Access to Learning-Ready Classrooms That Support Student Success. Journal of Teaching and Learning with Technology 8: 76–86.
Taylor, V. J., and Walton, G. M. (2011). “Stereotype Threat Undermines Academic Learning,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 37, no. 8: 1055–67.
Tevis, Y. (2019) “Adapting Technology and Building an Accessibility Community at the University of California,” EDUCAUSE Review, March 25, 2019.
Walton, G. M., and Cohen, G. L. (2007). “A Question of Belonging: Race, Social Fit, and Achievement.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92, no. 1: 82–96.
Antelman, K., and Felix, E. The Learning Space Toolkit — A Resource for Designing and Sustaining Technology-Rich Informal Learning Spaces.
Baepler, P., Brooks, D. C., and Walker, J. D. (Eds.). (2014). Active Learning Spaces: New Directions for Teaching and Learning. J-B TL Single Issue Teaching and Learning.
Baepler P., Walker, J. D., Brooks, D. C., Saichaie, K., and Petersen, C. A Guide to Teaching in the Active Learning Classroom: History, Research, and Practice, Stylus Publishing, 2016
Beatty, B. J. (2019). Hybrid-Flexible Course Design: Implementing Student-Directed Hybrid Classes (1st ed.). EdTech Books.
Birdwell, T., Roman, T. A., Hammersmith, L., and Jerolimov, D. (2016). Active Learning Classroom Observation Tool: A Practical Tool for Classroom Observation and Instructor Reflection in Active Learning Classrooms. Journal on Centers for Teaching and Learning 8: 28–50.
Boys, J. Towards Creative Learning Spaces: Re-Thinking the Architecture of Post-Compulsory Education. New York: Routledge, 2011.
Brooks, D. C. (2011). “Space Matters: The Impact of Formal Learning Environments on Student Learning,” British Journal of Educational Technology 24, no. 5: 719–726.
Brooks, D. C. "Space and Consequences: The Impact of Different Formal Learning Spaces on Instructor and Student Behavior." Journal of Learning Spaces 1, no. 2 (2012).
Carpenter, R., (ed). (2013). Cases on Higher Education Spaces: Innovation, Collaboration, and Technology. Hershey: IGI Global.
Cotner, S., Loper, J., Walker, J. D., Brooks, D. C. (2013). “‘It’s Not You, It’s the Room’—Are the High-Tech, Active Learning Classrooms Worth It?” Journal of College Science Teaching 42, no. 6: 82–88.
Finkelstein, A., Ferris, J., Weston, C., and Winer, L. (2016). “Research-Informed Principles for (Re)Designing Teaching and Learning Spaces,” Journal of Learning Spaces 5, no 1.
Felix, E., and Brown, M. “The Case for a Learning Space Performance Rating System.” Journal of Learning Spaces 1, no. 1 (2011).
Goldhagen, S. W. (2017). Welcome to Your World: How the Built Environment Shapes Our Lives. Harper-Collins.
Monahan, Torin. 2000. Built Pedagogies & Technology Practices: Designing for Participatory Learning. Participatory Design Conference, 2000.
Monahan, Torin. 2002. “Flexible Space and Built Pedagogy: Emerging IT Embodiments.” Inventio 4, no. 1: 1–19.
Oblinger, D., ed., Learning Spaces. Boulder, CO: EDUCAUSE, 2006.
Radcliffe, D., H. Wilson, D. Powell, and B. Tibbetts, eds. Learning Spaces in Higher Education: Positive Outcomes by Design [https://static1.squarespace.com/static/55d3f590e4b0d60074069c3d/t/5cca4874c830253749556752/1556760973074/UQ+Next+Generation+Book.pdf]. Brisbane: The University of Queensland, 2009.
Scott-Webber, L., J. Branch, P. Bartholomew, and C. Nygaard. Learning Space Design in Higher Education. Libri Publishing, 2014.
Smith, R. E., Chen, H. L., Johnson, M. J., and Huang, C. "Priorities in the Classroom: Pedagogies for High Performance Learning Spaces." In Informed Design of Educational Technologies in Higher Education: Enhanced Learning and Teaching, edited by A. Olofsson and J. Lindberg. Palo Alto: Stanford University, 2011.
Strange, C. C., and J. H. Banning. Educating by Design: Creating Campus Learning Environments That Work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.
Sussman, A., and Hollander, J.B. (2015). Cognitive Architecture: Designing for How We Respond to the Built Environment. Routledge.
Taylor, A. Linking Architecture and Education: Sustainable Design of Learning Environments. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2009.
Van Horne, S., C. Murniati, J. D. H. Gaffney, and M. Jesse. "Promoting Active Learning in Technology-Infused TILE Classrooms at the University of Iowa." Journal of Learning Spaces 1, no. 2 (2012).
Van Note Chism, N., Bickford, D. J., eds. The Importance of Physical Space in Creating Supportive Learning Environments. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.
Walker, J. D., D. C. Brooks, and P. Baepler. "Pedagogy and Space: Empirical Research on New Learning Environments." EDUCAUSE Quarterly 34, no. 4 (2011).
Webber, L. S. In Sync: Environmental Behavior Research and the Design of Learning Spaces. Ann Arbor: Society for College and University Planning Book, 2009.
Whiteside, A. L., D. C. Brooks, and J. D. Walker (2010). “Making the Case for Space: Three Years of Empirical Research on Learning Environments." EDUCAUSE Quarterly 33, no. 3.
Wilkerson, A., Donohue, A., and Davis, B. (2015) Designing for the Active Classroom. LD+A, February 2015.